Egypt is a large country with a population of 84 million. It has the largest population in the Middle East and the third-largest in Africa. Most of Egypt is in North Africa. It shares its borders with Israel, the Sinai Peninsula and Asia. Its other neighbors are Sudan, Libya, and Saudi Arabia.
Egypt has one of the longest histories of any modern state. The architectural wonders like the Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza are in Egypt and they were built by an ancient civilization that was one of the most advanced for its times.
In more recent times (1981 to February 2011), Egypt was ruled by a dictator, Hosni Mubarak for nearly 30 years. His policies did little for the common people. Unemployment rose; food and housing were not affordable. On January 25 2011, widespread protests began against the Mubarak government. Finally, on February 11 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo.
The army took over and temporarily assumed power to govern Egypt. In June 2012, Mohamed Morsi was finally elected by the people to be the President of Egypt. Unfortunately, Mohamed Morsi gave himself unlimited powers in November 2012, after issuing a declaration that banned challenges to his decrees, laws and decisions. This led to renewed dissatisfaction in the people of Egypt and huge protests were held again in Cairo, the capital of Egypt, demanding that Morsi address the people’s issues or step down. The issues were not resolved and Morsi refused to step down.
Military rule since July 2013
In July 2013 the army forced Morsi out of office and an interim military rule was established. The constitution was suspended until the next presidential elections can be held. Adly Mansour a Supreme court judge is now the acting president
In mid-August, the violence between Morsi supporters of Morsi and the army escalated further, with hundreds killed, and the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew. Following the mid-August incidents and the imposition of a state of emergency, security forces made a wave of arrests of leaders and senior members. Morsi has also been put on trial.
The unrest continues in Egypt with protests continuing daily by pro-Morsi supporters. The military-backed government issued a new law on November 24 2013, banning protests without a police permit. The law severely restricts the freedom of assembly and the kind of demonstrations that had removed presidents Hosni Mubarak and Mohamed Morsi from power.
It remains to be seen whether democracy will succeed in Egypt.
decree - an official order
democracy - form of government in which people choose leader by voting
curfew - a regulation requiring people to remain indoors between specified hours, typically at night